Bible Study: Deuteronomy – Summary of the Book

Summary of the Book of Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy is a book containing four sermons that Moses gave to the people before entering the Promised Land. The events of the book took place over very few days prior to his death and the entering in to the land of Canaan.

The teachings of Moses in Deuteronomy are important enough to be quoted 90 times in 14 of the 27 books of the New Testament. When tempted by Satan in Luke 4, Jesus Christ quoted exclusively from the book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 8:3; 6:13, 16).

The English title Deuteronomy comes from the Septuagint Greek version of the Old Testament. The word means “second law.” This is not a new law, rather a second telling, or re-telling of the law which was given in Mt. Sinai. The people living during the sermons in Deuteronomy were a new generation of Israelites who were not present when the Law was initially given to Moses 40 years before.

Author

Besides the fact that the book consists of the sermons of Moses, there are Old and New Testament references to Moses as the author. 2 Chronicles 25:4 refers to Moses as the author of the law written in Deuteronomy 24:16. Jesus quoted the book of Deuteronomy and attributed the writings to Moses (Matthew 19:7-9 compared to Deuteronomy 24:1-4; John 5:45-47 compared to Deuteronomy 18:15). Paul attributed the writing of the book to Moses in Romans 10:19 (compare with Deuteronomy 32:21).

While there are obvious proofs that Moses wrote the book, someone else had to have written the final chapter which contains the death of Moses. Most Bible scholars hold to Joshua and Ezra as the probable authors of that chapter. There are, however, biblical critics who claim (like Numbers) that the entire book was written several hundred years after Moses. Continue reading Bible Study: Deuteronomy – Summary of the Book

Bible Study: Numbers – Summary of the Book

Summary of the Book of Numbers

Numbers gets its name from the two censuses, or numberings, of the people of Israel. The first was done shortly after the exodus. The second took place at the end of the 40 years in the wilderness as the nation was preparing to finally enter the Promised Land.

The majority of the book talks about the wilderness experience of the people of Israel. For this reason, the Hebrew title of the book is “In the Wilderness.” The Septuagint (Greek) translation of the book also calls it “Numbers” and is probably why it is called “Numbers” today.

Author

Like Leviticus, the book starts with God speaking to Moses. The book opens with: “And the Lord spake unto Moses.” This phrase (or variations) appear more than 80 times in the book. The authorship is most commonly attributed to be Moses (Numbers 33:1, 2). However, there are liberal scholars who believe the book was written by various priests during the post-Babylonian captivity. There is no hard evidence to suggest such a late writing for the book. Continue reading Bible Study: Numbers – Summary of the Book

Bible Study: Leviticus – Summary of the Book

Summary of the Book of Leviticus

Leviticus is the third book of the Bible. The first five books of the Bible are called the Pentateuch, or the Law, and are generally accepted as being written by Moses. The name “Leviticus” means “the Levitical book.” Even though it contains Levi’s name, it was written concerning the priesthood in general, not only to the Levites (which is the focus of the book of Numbers). The title of the book in the Hebrew Bible means “And He Called,” which are the opening words of the book. Leviticus is the calling of God’s people to be holy.

Genesis deals with man’s creation and fall. The book contains God’s promise of a Redeemer (Genesis 3:15) and a choosing of the nation of Israel as the one through whom the Redeemer would come.

Exodus is Israel’s deliverance from the bondage of Egypt culminating in a place of worship being established. This is a picture of the spiritual bondage that man has to sin, yet God provides a way of deliverance.

The book of Leviticus opens where Exodus closes. Exodus ended with God giving a place of worship. Leviticus is God showing the method in which this worship would be conducted.

Author

The book starts with the phrase “the Lord called unto Moses” which appears 35 other times in the book. Moses is referred to, by name, 55 times within the pages of Leviticus. In Matthew 8 Jesus talks about the commandments that Moses gave in Leviticus 14. Paul talks of Moses being the author of Leviticus 18:5. Leviticus is clearly written by Moses. Continue reading Bible Study: Leviticus – Summary of the Book

Bible Study: Exodus – Summary of the Book

Summary of the Book of Exodus

Exodus is the second book of the Bible and the second book of the five books of the Law, or the Pentateuch. This book covers the exodus of the nation of Israel out of Egypt through their journey to the Promised Land.

Author

Within the book of Exodus there is language that suggests the author is an eye witness to the events contained within the book. Exodus 17:14; 24:3-7 and 34:27, 28 each talk about God asking or telling Moses to write the current events in a book. This is the book we read today called Exodus.

Both the Old and New Testaments refer to Moses as the author of the Law, and therefore the book of Exodus, just as it does for Genesis. There is no reason to suspect that Moses was not the author. Continue reading Bible Study: Exodus – Summary of the Book

Bible Study: Genesis – Summary of the Book

Book of Genesis Summary

Genesis is the first book of the Bible and is also the first of the five books of the Law. These five books together are often called the Pentateuch. While the book of Job is believed to be the first Bible book written, the book of Genesis covers the earliest period in history.

Author

Authorship is historically accepted as Moses even though the book never claims Moses as the author. Both the Old and New Testaments ascribe authorship to Moses. There is no reason or proof given as to why it should not have been Moses.

Here are some Old Testament references to Moses as the author of the Law: Joshua 1:7, 8; I Kings 2:3; II Chronicles 34:14; Nehemiah 8:1, 14; Nehemiah 13:1. In these passages there are phrases like, “as it is written in the law of Moses,” “a book of the law of the LORD given by Moses,” and “the law which the LORD had commanded by Moses.” The Old Testament clearly refers to the Law as having been written by Moses. Continue reading Bible Study: Genesis – Summary of the Book